Monday, October 16, 2006

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Annotated Bibliography

1. Chio Ting. “ The Great Wave of Performance Stage.” March, 1996.
(Page 8 paragraph 4). Taiwanese opera performance was invited to celebrate the birthday of Gods by temples.
(Page 9 Paragraph 2). Multiple local dramas are flourishing because of the religion belief, and outdoor performance and committee involving are also the motivation of it.
(Page 10 Paragraph2). In the dilemma of price reduction and the crisis of inheriting, many troupes are hard to manage.
(Page 35 Paragraph 4). The features of Taiwanese opera are not only
being cable to tolerate and easy to popularize, but also free to perform.

2. Chen Gen, Zen Shei-Wen. “ The Frustrations of Taiwanese Opera.” November, 1995
(Page 157 Paragraph 5). In 1960s to 80s, the KMT government supports the development of Pekng opera. The government discriminated and ignored Taiwanese opera in order to protect the superior their won traditional culture.

3. Hui-Lin Cheng. “ Taiwanese”~ Taiwanese opera at Interface. May, 2005
(1~2). The author mentioned that Taiwanese opera is more popular than Chinese
opera because Taiwanese opera use Taiwanese slang largely, and of course, it
expresses the spirit of local appropriately. Taiwanese opera is promoted as “local
culture” by government. (6~7). Taiwanese opera used to going down because of
the policy, which made by KMT, forbid to speak Taiwanese. KMT announced T-
aiwanese is dialect and imposed China identity on whole society. Whit the local
consciousness raising, the folklorist Lin Mao-Xian stated on newspaper (1990)
that “Taiwanese opera is the only native-born theater.”

4. Hung Shen-Chen “The research of The Life of Taiwanese opera Actor.” June, 1993
<> (32). “Nowadays, new Taiwanese opera actors performed incorrectly and didn’t learn hard, so that most of their performance are understnadered. How can we ask for excellent performance?” quoted from the interview of famous Taiwanese opera actress Liao Chong-Gie.

5. Liu Mei-Chin. “The concept of Taiwanese opera.” June, 1999
(54~55) Taiwanese opera was announced as “nation-damaged tune” by KMT
government due to controlling whole Taiwanese people, and forbidden to perform.
(117~118). There are two performance types of Taiwanese opera troupe, one is performed by vocal, the other is performed by tape record. The actors who perform by vocal are older but super than by tape record. (132~133) Fortunately, more and more researchers work in Taiwanese opera researching, and keen on maintain traditional culture, therefore, Taiwanese is hopeful to be developed.

6. Liu Mei-Chin. “ To View the Pass, Present and Future of the Taiwanese opera in Kaohsiung City Form Troupe’s Point of View.” March, 2000.
(Page 158~162). Liu mentioned the development and dilemma of troupes are as follows: lacking of budget and facilities, and learning without passion.
(Page 162~170). She also came up with some ideas in order to help troupes to go through the dilemma: to attract young actors and musical group, to make complete plan of allowance, to encourage play writing, to attract young audience, and to exchange opinion or experience with mainland China.

7. Lin Mao-Cien. “The Beauty of Formosa, Taiwanese Traditional Drama. The Album of Local Culture.” March, 2000.
(77). The KMT government attempted to use Taiwanese opera as publicity material of anti-communism. But the traditional drama grows up as folk drama, it must be damaged if it is used on political purpose. He also mentioned that the important features in Taiwanese opera are position (gestures, movement and eye contact) and good voice. (90~91). The prospect of Taiwanese opera is to be traditionalized and refined. Sing more than talk and keep working harder at movement improving. Make use of various tunes to enhance the music. Use the modern device in order to fit the trendy.

8. National Tradition Art Center. “To Hear the Voice from Taiwan History.” December, 2000.
(41). In conclude, the period of Japanese conquered is an important concern of Taiwanese drama history and the development of traditional drama shouldn’t be excluded by the consciousness type. We should fetch back it’s value in art and develop any traditional drama in equal.

9. Teri Silvio. “First as Farce, Then as Tragedy: Popular Allegory and National Analogy in Contemporary Taiwanese Opera.”
(1). The author mentioned about the Golden Ages of Taiwanese opera , and what Taiwanese opera had gone through these ages. (3~5) Silvio introduced the typical troupe, included the actress’s background, education and how they perform. (6~10). Silvio introduced simply about different type of performances, what o-pei-la and go-chhe-hi is. (9, 19) She mentioned the traditional tunes of Taiwanese are to: ma tioh and chhit-e-a. These two main tunes are still heard in the “refined Taiwanese opera”.

10. Zen Yuon-Yi. “ The Development and Transition of Taiwanese Opera.”
(Introduction Page 9 Paragraph 1). What we need to understand is that the material culture is easy to preserve, but the invisible culture is easy to disappear.
Once it disappeared, will be hard to appear anymore. We are obligated to preserve culture heritage for offspring.


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